Category Archives: Research Projects

Steerable bone drill

This research project is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO and conducted in collaboration with Philips Research, DEAM, Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden, Amsterdam University Medical Center and Reinier de Graaf Hospital in Delft.

Spinal fusion is the surgical procedure of stiffening parts of the spinal column with screws and rods to, among others, reduce back pain for patients affected by multiple diseases. Vertebrae have an outer layer of hard cortical bone surrounding the softer core that consists of cancelous bone. The strength of the connection between vertebra and screw mainly relies on the contact area with the cortical bone, but drilling close to this cortical bone layer is risky, as it can lead to cortical breaches. These breaches can have severe complications, especially since important neural and vascular structures run along the spinal column.

This research will focus on creating a better fixation of the screws and preventing complications that can arise due to cortical breaches by developing a steerable bone drill with an optical sensing system in the tip. This allows the surgeon to drill a curved path along the cortical bone layer while getting real time information about the location of the drill. Regular stiff screws will not fit this curved hole, thus a new anchoring device will be developed that is flexible when introduced to the curved hole and that can become rigid to generate the needed fixation.

PROJECT INSPIRATION

Our aim in ‘Project Inspiration’ is to quickly develop an emergency mechanical ventilator, inspired by a mechanical ventilator from the 60’s. A team of staff members and students, led by Gerwin Smit, has developed a new ventilator, that can be manufactured anywhere in the world. More information can be found at: https://www.projectinspiration.nl.

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Devices for autonomous intraluminal surgery

This research is part of the AuTonomous intraLuminAl Surgery Innovative Training Network ( ATLAS-ITN) and has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 813782 .

The goal of this project is to develop smart, flexible robots that autonomously propel themselves through complex, deformable, tubular structures. This calls for seamless integration of sensors, actuators, modelling and control.

Two early-stage researchers, Fabian Trauzettel (ESR 1) and Chun-Feng Lai (ESR 12), will be based at TU Delft, while two others, Di Wu (ESR 11) and Zhen Li (ESR 13) will have TU Delft as their secondary institution. They will focus on multi-steerable catheter technology, follow-the-leader control, control of multi-DOF catheters in unknown environments, and path planning / real-time re-planning. Details of their projects can be found here.

Research in the network will be conducted at KU Leuven, TU Delft, University of Strasbourg, Politecnico di Milano, Università di Verona, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna Pisa, and UPC Barcelona.

3D Printed medical devices

This research is part of EU Interreg 2 Seas Mers Zeeën 3D MED: Development and streamlined integration of 3D printing technologies to enable advanced medical treatment and its widespread application.

The goal of this project is to research the possibilities of 3D printing for the advanced design and production of medical devices, in order to improve affordability and accessibility of medical treatment. The benefit of 3D printing is that complex shapes can be created in one single production step, which offers great potential for easy manufacturing and added functionality. The focus will be on developing design methods for complex medical devices with internal mechanisms used in eye surgery, which can be printed as one functioning assembly. This research is executed in collaboration with DORC, the Dutch Ophthalmic Research Centre.

4TU – Soft Robotics

This programme is a collaboration of the four technical universities of the Netherlands (4TU): Eindhoven University of Technology, University of Twente, Wageningen University, and Delft University of Technology.

Conventional robots operate in pre-programmed environments, enabling the execution of repetitive tasks at superhuman speed and accuracy, based on a design of interlinked rigid segments that are position controlled. A radically different approach is required to enable robots to safely interact with organic matter (which is inherently vulnerable and unpredictable) or to operate in human-inhabited environments. Robots should be soft and compliant, but designing, manufacturing, modelling and controlling them brings many scientific and technological challenges. These challenges have recently begun to be addressed in the emerging research community of ‘soft robotics’.

Our soft robotics programme aims to establish a leading soft robotics community in the Netherlands, that will establish an integrated design approach for soft robotic hardware, control and actuation, inspired by nature. Unlike conventional robots, humans and animals are soft and flexible, and adaptive. While in conventional robots components such as motors, sensors, beams and computer are stacked, in animals functionalities such sensing, control, and actuation are fully integrated, distributed, and robust (i.e., failure of parts does not lead to a non-functional system). In biology the nervous system is distributed over the entire body, and the ‘design’ of the biomechanical motion systems reduces the control demands for the nervous system. For this reason, we want to unravel the solutions found in nature, and use them as inspiration for the design of Soft Robots.

Novel non-assembly 3D printed structures will be explored to integrate electronics and embedded micro-actuators. Additionally, we will investigate bio-inspired power cable structures that can withstand extreme stretch due to their shape. In close collaboration with Wageningen University, we will combine bio-to-techno transfer with techno-to-bio transfer, whereby knowledge of biological functionality is gained from building soft robotic devices.

For more information about this project, please contact Aimée Sakes, a.sakes@tudelft.nl

Pressure Wave Catheter for Coronary Interventions

This research project is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO.

Crossing heavily calcified occlusions, such as Chronic Total Occlusions (CTOs), is challenging, resulting in undesirably low success rates between 50% and 90% depending on the operator’s experience and the characteristics of the CTO. The most common failure mode observed in the preferred treatment, the Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI), is the inability to cross the occlusion due to buckling of the guidewire. The inability to cross the CTO often leads to procedural failure and can cause damage to the blood vessel wall.

In order to prevent buckling of the crossing tool and improve the procedural success rates of PCI, we developed a novel, well-working catheter prototype that can apply a mechanical impulse, defined as the integral of a peak force over a small time interval, on the CTO during the crossing procedure. Using an impulse to dynamically load the CTO  is advantageous as the impulse strongly decreases the buckling effect and the static forces on the CTO and its environment, minimizing the risk of damage to the blood vessel wall and the surrounding tissues.

During this TTW demonstrator project we will develop our patented catheter prototype further into a  handheld clinical prototype incorporating an  adjustable tip section as well as a dedicated input mechanism allowing for generating a single impulse as well as continuously vibrating motions. The efficiency and effectiveness of the clinical prototype will be evaluated on CTO models and during ex-vivo and in-vivo animal evaluations.

 

Interventional Ductoscopy – the EVAPORATE study

This research project is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO and the Dutch Foundation of Cancer Research KWF.

Ductoscopy is a minimally invasive micro-endoscopic technique that allows for direct visualization of the milk ducts of the breast through their natural orifices in the nipple. It can be performed under local anesthesia in daily outpatient routine and has proven to be safe with a very low risk on (mild) complications. In collaboration with the UMC Utrecht, the aim of this project is to develop novel instruments for ductoscopy to prevent women from getting breast cancer.

Accessible Prosthetics through 3D Printing and a Smartphone App

This research project is part of the Delft Global Initiative program: the portal and booster of Science and Technology for Global Development at TU Delft. Aim of the program is to contribute to sustainable solutions for global societal challenges, through problem-oriented interdisciplinary technical research in close cooperation with partners in the developing world, to meaningfully improve lives of people living in poverty.

NotImpossible-3d-printed-hands-and-arms-1

Combining modern advances in smartphone technology with the seemingly unlimited possibilities of 3D-printing, in this project we aim to create easy access to prosthetics for amputees in Third World countries. We will develop an advanced, free IOS / Android app that scans the amputee with a smartphone camera and completely automates the complex prosthetic design process ending in design drawings for a 3D-printer that manufactures a well-fitting prostheses. In this project we will not only generate new, fundamental knowledge on automatic designing and manufacturing, we will also collaborate with a number of charity organizations to stimulate local initiatives in 3D printing and to optimize the prosthetic supply chain.

Photo: Example of 3D-printed prostheses from Mich Ebelings “Not Impossible Project” in Sudan.

More information: http://globalstories.tudelft.nl/story/paul-breedveld/

 

Tree Frog-Inspired Gripping

This research project is funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO.

Grip between heterogeneous objects can be weak or strong, permanent or reversible, and load dependent or load independent. In some cases, grip needs to be very strong (e.g., aircraft fuselage parts), whereas in other cases it has to be deliberately weak (e.g., screen protection foil for your smartphone). Office tape has to be reversible, whereas a broken vase should be permanently glued back together. A staple can be applied by piercing it through the paper, whereas a surgical gripper should grab soft organs without damaging them.

Grip that is strong, load independent, and reversible at the same time is a great challenge in engineering. Nature, on the other hand, manages quite well: Geckos, for example, can walk on tilted surfaces due to adhesive forces between their toes and the substrate. The stickiness is more than enough to carry the gecko’s weight, but the animal can still easily peel its feet from the surface during walking. Tree frogs can grip on wet, or even flooded, surfaces. Furthermore, their toe pads are soft, thereby eliminating the risk of causing normal stresses to the objects the animal grips upon. With a single foot, tree frogs generate gripping forces strong enough to 100 times carry their weight. Still, tree-frog grip is reversible: The animal detaches from a substrate by peeling its toes off.

The goal of this research project is to gain insight into adhesion on wet and soft surfaces and, inspired by the tree-frog adhesive apparatus, to develop artificial systems that are able to reversibly but firmly grip to objects while minimizing normal stresses.

 

Ultra-Thin Steerable Needle for Solid-Organ Interventions – WASP

This research project is part of the iMIT program and funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research NWO. The iMIT Program, executed by a community of Dutch Universities, university medical centers, and companies, aims to develop instruments for minimally invasive interventions. The program will result in the development of interactive Multi-Interventional Tools (iMIT)  that can adapt to their environment and integrate diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities, thus permitting effective single-procedure interventions.

The WASP project focuses on medical needles – common devices used in minimally invasive percutaneous procedures, such as localized therapeutic drug delivery or tissue sample removal (biopsy). Reaching the target with high accuracy and precision is necessary for the success of these procedures and becomes a challenge when the target is located deep inside the body. The surgeon needs a steerable flexible needle that can follow complex curved trajectories while avoiding sensitive structures, such as blood vessels, located along the trajectory between the insertion point and the target site. Looking in nature we find an interesting behavior in wasps which can be used as source of inspiration for facing this challenge. The wasp has a thin and flexible needle-like structure, called ovipositor, used for laying eggs into larvae hidden inside fruits or wood. It is composed of three longitudinal segments, called valves, that can be actuated individually and independently of each other with musculature located in the abdomen of the insect. In this way the wasp steers the ovipositor along curved trajectories inside different substrates without a need for rotatory motion or axial push.

Inspired by the anatomy and the steering mechanism of this needle-like structure we aim to develop an ultra-thin steerable needle that can follow curved paths through complex solid organs while avoiding obstacles.